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"Crash" liner>>What Actually Happened With Titanic...

"Titanic" sank in the North Atlantic 97 years ago.Since sostril Harvard historian Steven Bayel, "it is written, not much less than about Jesus or the Civil War, North and South."There are nearly 200 books, documentaries and feature films - including the most cash-motion picture of all time.Historians, scholars and fans simply "Titanic" vigorously disputes, as the true cause of death, the largest passenger liner of its time: namely, why it sank after some two hours and 40 minutes after the collision with the iceberg and took with them to the bottom of 1522 life .

As explained in his new book, "The last secret" Titanic "Brad Mets, the answer to these questions was given long ago, on the basis of a confidential investigation, which had a shipbuilder, created a" Titanic ". During this period, experts have accumulated enough evidence that the ship does not split into two and three parts and went under the water quickly banked and under less acute angle than dreamed James Cameron, a fault throughout the rivets were too thin and fragile shell.

But a set of documents from the shipyard Harland and Wolff (Belfast, Northern Ireland), which came into being "Titanic" and other ships of its kind, shows: the problem was not only to incompetence and poor work.That was criminal negligence: shipbuilder suspected that the body is too fragile, but ignored the warnings of his engineers, seeking time to drop "Titanic" on the water.The results of an investigation conducted after the death of the ship has not been made public; leadership Harland and Wolff allowed after two official government investigations blame for the shipwreck was given to the captain of "Titanic".Otherwise, legal action many victims would entail bankruptcy of the owners of "Titanic" - including JP Morgan.

At a time when hundreds of airliners annually transported across the Atlantic, millions of people, shipwreck was not something out of.While built Titanic, the news of the collision of two luxury liners "Repablik" and "Florida" in waters near Nentaketa, Massachusetts, got the first headlines around the world.Both vessels were much more serious damage than those that killed "unsinkable" Titanic. "

But "Florida" on track reached the New York and "Repablik" remained afloat 38 hours, and all 750 passengers were rescued.Why is the fate of "Titanic" had a much worse until now remained a mystery.And only in 2005, divers working with Metsenom found two large pieces of the pitching ship.From these materials, scientists have been able to establish that the airliner actually killed his frail body and weak rivets.

But we learned that shipbuilder knew about these izyanah advance.Upon learning about the findings Mets, a former archivist Harland and Wolf, now retired Tom Makklaski found details of the investigation, which the company undertook in 1912.All this time, the results withheld"Our findings of the analysis novonaydennyh fragments of the shell, completely coincided with the theoretical predictions of specialists from Harland and Wolff, based on their doskonalnyh knowledge of ship construction - Metso said. - Makklaski said that waited for someone to guess so documents refer to this man. "

The team of divers and scientists under the direction of Mets, and engineers from Harland and Wolff concluded: whether the shell and rivets stronger, "Titanic" would have lasted afloat much longer, which means that the victims would be far less. (After that Harland and Wolff upgraded housing the equal ship, which was built before "Titanic" by providing additional steel plating. Liner "Britannica" - the same type of ship, which at the time of death "Titanic" has not yet come down with the stocks - engineers have built, based on the original draft.)

"Titanic" was the brainchild of lyutoy competition unleashed by growth in the profitability of shipping after the Spanish-American War.Hoping to become the master of the North Atlantic, J. P. Morgan gained control of several bags of British and American shipping.The Federal Government of the United States helped him by providing subsidies and tax breaks.The British government responded grant Cunard Shipping - one of the few companies that have resisted absorption by Morgan."Huge money to pump into the industry, which barely regulated" - notes the Mets.

Shell plating done by a quarter-inch thinner and rivets - one-eighth inch thinner than the original draft.This ship was easier to 2500 tons and was able to cross the English Channel faster than competitors.As standards of shipbuilding behind the times - especially large ships are not taken into account - the changes do not exceed the then standards."They are just trying to please the customer - explains Mets. - If JP Morgan wanted to ship out of papier-mache, they would have made from papier-mache.Fortunately, such a ship, he's still not ordered.

Additional versions about the causes of the accident.


It is believed that if Merdok not ordered to reverse immediately after the «right to board», «Titanic» certainly would have avoided a clash (because the reverse effect on the efficiency of the steering wheel).In doing so misses the attention of the time required to execute a command. This requires not less than 30 seconds and the team certainly was adopted by the delay - the command of the machine in motion liners are rarely given (the latter was given three days earlier), so that the engine telegraph, no one is.The team simply did not have to comply or else «Titanic» experienced a severe vibration, but no one mentions it.
What would be if the rudder was not handed? Vaylding, shipbuilder from Belfast, calculated that the ship nose while vmyalsya on 25-30 meters, but the vessel would not have died.That would be instant death for those who at that time was in the bow of the vessel, but the inertia of the repayment would be rather slow, comparable to eduschim at a speed of the car, which instantly vyzhali to lock brakes »- tells Barnaby.But Merdok not be able to measure the distance to the iceberg and could not know that he will not be able to maneuver, you can hardly blame in that he was not given the command, known ubivshuyu a large number of people.


The inner liner system was extremely poor, direct communication with the captain did not - all of the messages he needed was to report orally.The reason was that, radiotelegraphic station, such as winter garden or children's SANDBOXES, considered a luxury, and the challenge of service operator was particularly wealthy passengers - know that only 36 hours of the radio operators have transferred more than 250 telegrams.Payment for the wire services were on the ground, radio, and in those days was very small and not tip while tekli river.
Unfortunately, Events with «Titanic» not survived, but preserved records of the various courts that had communication with liner, has more or less restore the image of the radio.Reports of drifting ice and iceberg already begun to arrive the morning of the fatal - April 14, indicating the precise coordinates of the zone of increased danger.But Titanic continued to drive on, not turn the course and did not reduce speed.At 19:30 came in particular telegram from the transport ship «Mesaba»: «announce ice from 42 degrees to 41 degrees 25 minutes north latitude and 49 degrees to 50 degrees 30 minutes west longitude.Saw large numbers of icebergs, ice fields.At that time, senior liaison officer Titanic Jack Phillips worked for the benefit of passengers, referring to the station cape Ras inexhaustible flow of messages, while the most important message to both the captain and not gone, lost in the paper heap - radio Mesaby forgot to mark a message as Ice Report c prefix MSG, which means personally captain.This small detail more than blocked the dedicated work of Phillips.
On the other hand, April 14, in addition to that message was received several warnings of the iceberg with other ships.The captain took some measures, in particular, officers have been spoken and written warnings about the dangers and vperedsmotryaschim were ordered to seek ldiny.Therefore, we can not say that Captain Smith was unaware of the block of ice.

Some have criticized the lack of binoculars from vperedsmotryaschego (many testimonies, binoculars were only for a distance of Belfast, Southampton, after this stop on the orders of Captain Hogg has somehow laid them in his cabin).It is felt that with binoculars, vperedsmotryaschy, despite a moonless night, noticed a iceberg than half a mile (926 meters), but for 2 or 3 miles (4-6 km).On the other hand, narrows the field of vision binoculars, so use it only once vperedsmotryaschy something noticed.
If the sea was even a slight disturbance or swell, he saw a white white horses from «waterline» iceberg.It later became known, «Titanic» collided with a black iceberg, that is, with this, which recently overturned in the water.Addressed to the liner side had a dark-blue color, this did not blink (normal, white iceberg when such conditions could be seen over a mile).

Liner was not on the flooding of the first five compartments.This construction, although possible, but very road - the only ship built so, «Great Eastern», was economic disaster.Besides «Titanic», in peacetime, no ship suffered no damage.
The substitution of ships
In 1911, during the running test «Olympic» collided with a British cruiser, the latter while miraculously remained afloat.Olympic also was damaged.«White Star Line» had already incurred financial losses and insurance for the ship is able to cover all losses, it was enough to only ship that has received even greater damage (which would however not be affected by its buoyancy).Similarities «Olympic» and «Titanic» created a legend according to which the ships were swapped names and the tragic flight went really This would explain many facts: the absence of binoculars from vperedsmotryaschih, reverse during the evasion of the iceberg, a high speed.One of the reasons for this version also has the dismantlement «Olympic» in 1925 (that is, through 14 years of service) for scrap metal.
Despite warnings of the iceberg, the captain «Titanic» did not slow down and did not change the route.But it was standard practice in those days.For example, during the inquest into the death of «Titanic» Captain Gerard Affeld (Gerhard C. Affeld), commanded 5 transatlantic ships, showed that, having received warnings of the iceberg, he never changed the route and slow down only in the event of fog or bad weather.He studied the ship's logs his ships.According to these magazines and other masters, having received warnings of the iceberg, too, do not change the route, and typically do not reduce speed. [6] On the other hand, not everyone followed this practice: closest to «Titanic» vessel «Kalifornien», reached a field of icebergs, stopped at its border (and transferred «Titanic» warning that was ignored).



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